The backhaul portion of the network comprises in the intermediate links between: the core network, the central part of a telecommunication network that provides various services to customers who are connected by the access network; or backbone network, a part of computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks; and the small subnetwork at the “edge” of the entire hierarchical network. That is, in a hierarchical telecommunications network, a collection of terminals, links and nodes which connect to enable communication between sets of the terminals.
The term backhaul is often generically used to describe the entire wired part of the network, though this is confused by the use of microwave bands, or radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as if millimetre, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz; and mesh network and edge network topologies, a type of networking where each node must not only capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a “relay” for other nodes, that is, it must collaborate to propagate the data in the network--uses a high capacity wireless channel to get packets to the microwave or fibrr links.
A telephone company, also known as a “telco,” “telephone service provider,” or “telecommunications operator, a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access, is very often the ISP providing backhaul. Although, for academic R&E networks or large commercial networks or municipal networks, it is increasingly common to connect to a public broadband backhaul.
Broadband is a term normally considered to be synonymous with a high-speed connection to the Internet. The national broadband plans from around the world are usually motivated by the perceived need to break the monopoly of incumbent commercial providers. For instance, the plan of the United States--“Connecting America: the National Broadband Plan,” unveiled March 16, 2010, a FCC (Federal Communications Commission) plan which deals with improving broadband Internet access throughout the United States--specifies that all community anchor institutions should be connected by gigabit fibre optics before the end of 2020.